ItemIn Search of a Father: Alexander Hamilton and His Father Figures(Southern New Hampshire University, 2019-01-08) Nash, Ashleigh; Denning, Robert; Reed, Charles V.Alexander Hamilton has long been considered a controversial founder. His political and economic beliefs polarized a new nation. Due to his controversial nature, Hamilton’s childhood circumstances were brought to public attention by his adversaries. These childhood experiences would shape not only Hamilton’s political career but would also shape the relationships he built with prominent and influential men and how he interacted with them. This paper aims to reconstruct the relationships Alexander Hamilton had with George Washington, Philip Schuyler, and James Hamilton Sr. in order to deconstruct the impressions of a father/son relationship. This paper will review the impact childhood abandonment can have on adulthood relationships within the colonial context. ItemDan Sickles: Disregarded Hero of the Battle of Gettysburg(Southern New Hampshire University, 2018-07-17) Gray, James Robert; Denning, Robert; Chan, ChristopherDan Sickles has been regarded by many historians as a political general who was a buffoon and led his troops into harm’s way at Gettysburg for personal glory. This paper examines Sickles’ early personal history, why that history has led historians to examine Sickles in a critical fashion with a historical lens, and why Sickles has been disregarded as the true hero of Gettysburg. Sickles was a lover of women causing him to perhaps have an affair with his mother-in-law, visit prostitutes, introduce one prostitute to the Queen of England, and ultimate to murder his wife’s lover in a rage that allowed him to be acquitted on an insanity defense. Sickles entered the Civil War looking to redeem his reputation and develop a military hero role for himself. Gettysburg would allow him the opportunity for that role, but events and his own future behaviors would prevent historians to view him in the role of hero. General Daniel Sickles has largely been criticized for his positioning of his troops on Day Two of the Battle of Gettysburg. However careful review of his personal history, his military experience prior to Gettysburg and his actions during the battle are all consistent with a general who correctly interpreted the situation and moved to prevent a Union defeat at Gettysburg. This paper will examine his early development as a politician, the murder of his wife's lover and entry into the service in the attempt to recover his reputation. The paper will review the effects of prior military actions he was involved in including the Peninsular Campaign, and Chancellorsville that influenced his actions at Gettysburg. Finally, the paper will examine his actions at Gettysburg, the effect on the Confederate attack, and prove the conclusion that General Sickles correctly positioned his troops and prevented a Union defeat. ItemTrans-Appalachian America and the National Road(Southern New Hampshire University, 2018-07-16) Boyd, Edward L.; Denning, Robert; Chan, ChristopherFollowing the Revolutionary War, the British ceded the Northwest Territory to the United States. This territory was the land north and west of the Ohio River to the Mississippi. The territory corresponds to the states of Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, Michigan, Wisconsin and an eastern portion of Minnesota. With Britain controlling the Great Lakes to the north and Spain to the south and west, this remained a landlocked territory whose only access to the eastern seaboard was over rugged mountain trails. In 1784, George Washington wrote of the need to link the western territory to the eastern states. He proposed an improved road to link an eastern river with the Ohio. Washington’s vision was accomplished as Congress enacted legislation during the Jefferson Administration for this infrastructure project. In 1811, work began at Fort Cumberland on the Potomac River in Maryland. The road conquered the mountains and reached the Ohio River in 1818. Originally known as the Cumberland Road, the National Road was eventually extended to Columbus, Ohio, Indianapolis, Indiana and finally Vandalia, Illinois in 1837. The federal funding and oversight of the road faced challenges from narrow readings of constitutional authority. Proponents of the road resorted to alarmist rhetoric, portraying the road as necessary, even vital, to prevent the nation becoming divided and separated by the mountainous terrain. This paper will evaluate the alarmist rhetoric in relation to the potential threats of disunion. Primary and secondary sources will be used in an ethnographical analysis of western culture and nationalism to demonstrate that the western settlers were patriots. The threat of disunion was used to justify federal control and funding for the National Road. ItemThe Evils of Bolshevism(Southern New Hampshire University, 2018-07-14) Young, Jan; Denning, RobertIn recent months, Russia has been the focus of many investigation and has been the topic of choice of the United States and its media. It is believed that a reinvigorated and bolstered Russia is now making itself known once more as key power player on the world stage. By utilizing modern day social media as modern-day propaganda tool and with limited invasions of neighboring former republics. Russia is now making a power play to influence elections, economies and its neighbors once more . Not more than a century ago, Russia and its Bolsheviks would feel this same type of invigoration when it attempted to spread unwanted Marxism throughout Central and Eastern Europe. Led by Lenin, Trotsky and later Stalin, these men would push a deadly agenda that had no bounds. Their agenda was simple, they wanted countries, societies and the church to be reformed so they could control all features of the individuals who rested in their Bolshevik and now imperialist path. The goal of the paper is to look back at its beginnings and reflect upon how Russia used propaganda, violence, pandemics and an economic crisis to push their unwanted Bolshevik outline. It will track how certain countries would be infiltrated by disheartened soldiers who had lost faith in their current leaders and their countries. It will look at its usages of media to push its schema. All these factors will be looked at with multiple lenses to see of Russia of yesteryear is now mirroring Russia of today. By looking at the past maybe we can see some clues of the future. ItemFort Laramie A Historic Guide to the West Historic Buildings Guide(Southern New Hampshire University, 2018-02-03) Wayland, Andrew; Denning, Robert; Chung, Yun Shun Susie; Chan, ChristopherFort Laramie National Historic Site in southeastern Wyoming recalls the days of the frontier period of the West (1760s to 1890s). From 1849 to 1890, the military fort at Fort Laramie was an important center of diplomacy, trade, and warfare on the Northern Plains. Many of the most important and vivid figures working to expand America passed through Fort Laramie. Trappers, fur traders, missionaries, overland emigrants, homesteaders, cowboys, soldiers, and Plains Indians all had an impact at Fort Laramie. Through various media resources, Fort Laramie’s history is told and one of the most important aspects of this history, the physical historic structures is only briefly touched upon. The historic structures are just one of the many focal points that can be concentrated on during a typical visitor experience. A qualitative analysis into the archival documents through the Fort Laramie Library & Archive, Fort Laramie Interpretation Cache, interviews with National Park Staff at Fort Laramie and interviews with local historians are able to be compiled into a Historic Buildings Guide that fully explore the historic structures at Fort Laramie which are a significant part of its history. ItemRighting an Injustice or American Taliban? The Removal of Confederate Statues(Southern New Hampshire University, 2018-07-12) Reif, Andreas Wolfgang; Denning, RobertIn recent years, several racial instances have occurred in the United States that have reinvigorated and demanded action concerning Confederate flags, statues and symbology. The Charleston massacre in 2015 prompted South Carolina to finally remove the Confederate battle flag from state grounds. The Charlottesville riots in 2017 accelerated the removal of Confederate statues from the public square. However, the controversy has broadened the discussion of how the Civil War monuments are to be viewed, especially in the public square. Many of the monuments were not built immediately following the Civil War, but later, during the era of Jim Crow and the disenfranchisement of African Americans during segregation in the South. Are they tributes to heroes or are they relics of a racist past that sought not to remember as much as to intimidate and bolster white supremacy? This work seeks to break up the eras of Confederate monument building and demonstrate that different monuments were built at different times (and are still being built). The monuments reflect other events in the country happening at the time, as well as the thinking of those who built them. This author hopes that these nuances will add to the general discussion and the usual three responses toward the statues of either taking them down to either destroy them, keep them, but add context, or place them in museums, cemeteries or private property. These nuances are important, possibly rendering all three as valid decisions. This author will use multiple lenses, including Union, Confederate, and African American lenses as interpreters for the various eras discussed. ItemHer-sterics vs Hysterics: Reflecting on Women and Mental Health Treatment in The United States; 1800-Present(Southern New Hampshire University, 2018-07-12) Potenza, Victoria Ann; Denning, Robert; Chung, Yun; Irving, RobertThe history of women’s treatment in the mental health field is long and complicated. Women were treated significantly different than men and many of the theories and ideas that doctors and early psychiatrists had were based on stereotypes about what a woman should act like in society. The mental health field grew rapidly in the early 1800s and many of the original ideas about how women should be treated still exist in the field today. The OMEKA online exhibit will show how differently women were treated within the field as well as showing how treatments and techniques have changed from the early 1800s to present day. ItemEdwardian stereotypes, social propaganda, American women in the military, and the Great War(Southern New Hampshire University, 2018-07-11) Needham, Jimmy Lee; Chan, Christopher; Irvine, RobertThis is a research paper performing an in-depth examination of the power of Edwardian stereotypes and social propaganda and the lack of their effect upon American women's ability to serve in the military and military related service during the Great War. This is a worthwhile project that is of great historical importance not only to academics but of general historical interest to the public in general. Current historiography on either World War One or women’s issues lack a synthesis and cohesion that this paper will address through original scholarship and research of primary documents and examination of secondary works by academic historians versed and knowledgeable in their particular disciplines. This year marks the one hundredth anniversary of America’s involvement in this worldwide conflict. Women's service in the Great War and how it was and was not affected by the constrictive but rapidly changing social mores of the Edwardian culture is a relevant but unexplored topic. This will be an examination of primary and secondary sources that reveals the lack of recognition of resistance to the influence of the stereotypes by these women in historiological and academic research and literature. ItemGrant Submission: Prehistoric Research on the Merrimack Valley(Southern New Hampshire University, 2018-07-10) DeCologero, Cristina K.; Denning, Robert; Chung, Yun; Robert; YunPrecolonial history continues to be an understudied topic and is a neglected piece of public history. Even when facing thousands of years of historical archaeology, scholars tend to stray away from the opportunity to utilize these sources toward the expansion of America’s precolonial history. A new approach to the study of this topic would remedy this situation by studying regions of America that prove to be hotbeds for archaeological findings. The Merrimack Valley, of Massachusetts, provides an opportunity to refine research as it has a rich archaeological history. Looking through a microscopic lens, a grant proposal will be presented with the intent of studying the precolonial history of the Merrimack Valley, and its artifacts, with the intent of then applying this research to overarching efforts to revise Merrimack Valley’s public history. ItemLove and Marriage(Southern New Hampshire University, 2018-07-17) Balais, Joseph Anthony; Denning, Robert; Chan, ChristopherMost recently, the Trump Administration has taken a hard stance against the North Korean regime, against their nuclear build up, threats to other nations like Japan and South Korea, launching missiles, with nuclear capabilities towards and over the Sea of Japan, and showing a behavior that is considered unprofessional and dangerous. Some of the questions that the audience should be asking themselves before reading this, “how we got here as an international community, who were the leaders, past and present, that shown their commitment to peace and defense for South Korea, and over the course of history between these two nations, the United States of America and South Korea, how have relations improved and prosper, with obstacles and challenges as well?” Throughout this literature piece, you’ll find the information in a chronological fashion, helping you as the reader to better understand how the Korean War happened and how both western nations became partners that would last for decades and well into the future, not just with both governments, and militaries, but how American and Korean culture made their ways towards communities in America and in South Korea. Majority of the sources used throughout came from the Southern New Hampshire University Online Library, and others, came throughout the internet. ItemLouis Sockalexis and the Right to Use Native American Imagery in Sports: The Cleveland Indians and Chief Wahoo(Southern New Hampshire University, 2018-05-09) Smith, Victoria Grace; Denning, Robert; Bartee, Seth; McConnell, StephanieNative American imagery has been used for mascots, logos, and team names for almost two centuries. Many teams state that this is honoring the history of the Native American. Teams have utilized Native American Athletes for the reasoning behind their team name and logo. However, this imagery is often times raciest and contributes in offensive and historically inaccurate betrayals of Native Americans to be formed. The honoring of Native Americans continues to go on especially in the world of athletics, in local school districts, colleges/universities, and professional teams. This usage of Native American imagery helps to maintain the cultural and historical aspects of these important peoples. Throughout the research many sources have been located and utilized. Local newspaper articles and other local references have been an important contribution. Over the past several decades, research has been completed in regards to Native American imagery being used for sports teams. This research has helped to support the thesis of the following paper. The following paper leaves a mark in Cultural, Social, Political, and Sports history. It has contributed to the progress that has been made in Native American sports research. The conclusion of the following shows how important it is to honor Native Americans. It also shows the importance of the Chief Wahoo logo and the team name of the Indians to Clevelanders. The following research shows just how much Native American history and imagery has influenced the world of sports. There are aspects that should change when using these Native American images. ItemSports Blogging: Bridging the Gap Between Journalism and Academics(Southern New Hampshire University, 2018-04-27) DAngelo, Robert; Denning, RobertBlogging has been an online activity for more than two decades, and its impact has been felt in the journalism and academic communities. In its infancy, the sports blog consisted of an author posting links to other sources. Since then, sports blogs have been used as a journalistic tool by industry professionals and amateurs to break news, provide analysis and context to issues of the day. Likewise, scholars have begun to realize the potential for blogs to reach out to a larger and more diverse audience, using its sense of immediacy to keep up with changing trends in academic sports history. This thesis will show that a bridge has been formed that connects sports journalism with scholarly research. Bridging the gap between sports journalism and digital history has the potential of opening new areas of legitimacy while bringing more credibility to online work. Twenty years after its inception, blogging about sports has positioned itself to connect the immediacy of sports journalism and the long-lasting effects of scholarly journals. ItemWords and Weddings: Shifts in the Vocabulary of Marriage and Literature(Southern New Hampshire University, 2018-04-24) Astl, Catherine; Harrison, MarlenLiterature abounds with versions of courtship leading to marriage. By exploring the morphology and usage of words associated with matrimony, changes in grammar, as well as mining Greek, Elizabethan, Shakespearean, Romantic, and Victorian works, changes occurred in what marriage meant to society, and what words were used to describe marriage. Identifying patterns, alongside interdisciplinary applications, and the heavy use of New Historicism, shows how the institution of marriage –the modern ones based on relationships, versus mere family ties, rank, and “business-like” arrangements of old - resulted in an evolution that could only have come about with societal changes allowing that relearning. ItemImmigrant Women in the Making of Irish America(Southern New Hampshire University, 2018-04-21) Polatchek, Deborah; Denning, Robert; Chung, YunAs a result of the Great Hunger, nearly 1.8 people emigrated from Ireland, and the resultant diaspora changed the face of the great cities where they arrived. The Irish were the first large immigrant group to emigrate to New York, and their arrival challenged the infrastructure and permanently changed the demography of the city. As such, the Irish are integral to immigration studies and New York City history, for they set the stage for the many ethnicities that followed in their footsteps. An important element in immigration studies is the process of assimilation that groups undergo as they transition from the old land to the new. This walking history tour introduces students to the idea of acculturation through the immigrant experience of the Irish Catholic women who emigrated in the middle of the nineteenth century. Through the use of illustrated newspapers, personal correspondence, city directories and bank records students learn of the nativist hostility that the Irish faced, and the strategies that they used to survive in their hostile new world. The tour ultimately exposes that while religious animosity threatened the Irish in America, it was this commitment to religion and to each other that enabled them to not only assimilate, but to thrive in New York. ItemTangled Loyalties: A Study of Kurdish Nationalism and the Partition of the Ottoman Empire(Southern New Hampshire University, 2018-02-27) King Utu, Shannon; Bartee, SethThis essay analyzes the theoretical concept of nationalism in the post WWI era through the lens of the Kurds and the partition of the Ottoman Empire. The rhetoric of President Woodrow Wilson's Fourteen Points and how they are applied to the Middle East are analyzed, especially the idea of self-determination. The concept of nationalism is broken down to be understood as an arbitrary way to group people into sub-groups of race in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. By studying nationalism and the partition of the Ottoman Empire, it is determined that a nation-state must be founded on both global support and solidarity. If global support does not exist, a nation-state can be founded by force, as was the case for the Turks under Mustafa Kemal. Solidarity can be rooted in nationalism, but it does not have to be. It can be rooted in many things, including religion, which was the case of many Kurds who choose to unite with the Turks in their fight for self-determination. The Kurds ultimately did not unite, despite British aid, and the nation-state of Kurdistan was never created. ItemTheodore Roosevelt and the Native Americans: How his beliefs influenced his treatment of the Native Americans(Southern New Hampshire University, 2018-02-19) Smith III, Loren; Denning, Robert; Averill, Stephanie; McConnell, StephanieIn the attempt to characterize the historical character, Theodore Roosevelt historians have oversimplified the history and the character, leading to extreme perspectives. Some historians have written of him as a hero of the people, a progressive reformer who saved the less fortunate from the wealthy elitists. While other historians referred to him as a racist bent on expansionistic ideas to conquer the world in the name of the Anglo-Saxons. The present thesis accurately interprets Theodore Roosevelt and shows how his progressive ideals and his racist beliefs both originated from the same part of his character. Roosevelt’s progressive ideals and his Anglo-Saxon superiority views led him to believe that his superior Anglo-Saxon race was destined to conquer and then educate the inferior races in self-government. His Native American policies and actions toward Native Americans present clear evidence of how Roosevelt’s dual views came together to create this enigma of a historical character. ItemThe Grand Veteran Organizations and their Affiliates: Lobbyists and Revolutionaries(Southern New Hampshire University, 2018-02-12) Donachie, Adam; Denning, Robert; Averill, Stephanie; McConnell, StephanieThe Grand Army of the Republic was a critical and underappreciated organizations that historians view with a narrow lens. Organizations such as the Grand Army of the Republic, United Confederate Veterans and the women’s organizations that aligned themselves with these two veterans’ organizations developed educational curriculum and traditions that continued in contemporary schools in the United States. The GAR allowed integration, and thus a voice to African-Americans. For women had a social outlet and political influence by associating with both northern and southern veterans. Many times, these details take a back seat to the restrictions these populations faced. Civil War soldiers and veterans brought about changes to United States pension and voting policy. The Union veterans and the Women’s Relief and Corps solidified a national identity, while the UCV and the southern women created the Lost Cause which has permeated the American consciousness. Using primary and secondary sources this paper evaluates the GAR, WRC, UCV, and the Daughters of the Confederacy and the role they had on American society. Many areas these organizations influenced continue to have major impacts on contemporary America. This paper also uses sources view these organizations as having positive and negative influences. ItemSlavery, Christianity, and the Exodus from the Black Church(Southern New Hampshire University, 2018-02-06) Hunter, Paul; Denning, Robert; Chung, Yun S.; Chan, ChristopherThe purpose of this thesis is to address the issue of African Americans leaving Christianity and finding solace in religious ideologies which do not represent the same Judeo-Christian and democratic values that traditionally have been espoused in this United States of America. From examining the material that is available on slavery, its association with Christianity in the United States and the western hemisphere, and information on alternative ideologies being embraced by African Americans, the intention of this research is to show that the exodus was in part due to the link be Christianity and slavery in the United States. In addition, it will be shown that African Americans are finding alternative religious and philosophical ideologies more favorable because they are addressing the needs of African Americans. Some of the religious organizations that African Americans are gravitating to outside of the realm of Christianity are making those disenchanted with Christianity believe that their alternative religious ideologies are more in line with their African ancestry. Along with this, the thesis will present some of the main arguments for and against Christianity. This aspect of the project will include the use of scriptures which from the Old and New Testament showing the biblical position on slavery and perspective on conduct to be afforded to others in and outside of the Christian faith. Afterwards, this thesis will provide the cost of having a presentation conducted at the Schomburg Center for Research in Black Culture. And lastly, there a summary will be provided along with information about the online presentation that will contain highlights of the project. ItemIdentity Formation in the Thirteen American Colonies: An Interdisciplinary Approach with a Focus on Psychological Theory(Southern New Hampshire University, 2017-11-19) Dziaba, Elizabeth Katherine; Denning, Robert; Averill, Stephanie; McConnell, StephanieThis thesis addresses the process of the formation of a separate identity among the original Thirteen Colonies in the New World. Although the research into the American Revolution has been extensive, psychological principles have not been applied to explain the change in identity. A combinative approach is the best way to remedy this issue: an examination of the various causes of the Revolution between the years of 1763 and 1776 (economic, political, religious, geographical, and ideological) and how they created in-groups and out-groups will resolve this oversight. This analysis concludes that the major events during this time window led to the formation of solid in-groups and out-groups leading to the separation of identity and country, and the changes are explained using social identity theory and other group theories in social psychology and sociology. ItemThe French Modern State: Realizing the Shift in Architecture, Art, and Society in the 19th Century(Southern New Hampshire University, 2017-11-16) Lorenz, Dorothy Marcelle; Denning, Robert; Chung, Yun Shun Susie; Chan, ChristopherThe 19th century in Paris France is best known today as one of the most influential, industrial, and modern periods of the modern era. Its art was changing the way the art scene moved and how art was displayed and sold. Artists like Edgar Degas, Claude Monet, and Pierre-Auguste Renoir, were some of the painters that helped this evolving art culture that forever changed the way art was viewed and expressed. Looking at the art helps us to see parts of the past that have long been forgotten or overlooked. What most don’t see is that the historiography of the 19th century leaves out important connections to the art, architecture, and science of Paris France. Gaps can be seen in the research regarding the architecture, art, and technological advances that were taking place during 1830-1899. This analysis will look to answer questions regarding connections made to the art and architecture of 19th century Paris France. In respect to the archival arrangements that are at the Art Institute of Chicago, there will also be a public program made for this project whose target is students ages 14-18 years in age. This public project will teach them about the connections that can be made to art history and the changing architecture of Paris.