Manual synoptic climate classification for the East Coast of New England (USA) with an application to PM2.5 concentration
This study presents a manual synoptic climate classification for the East Coast of New England with an application to regional pollution. New England weather was classified into 9 all-inclusive weather types: Canadian High, Modified High, Gulf of Maine Return, New England High, Atlantic Return, Frontal Atlantic Return, Frontal Overrunning-Continental, Frontal Overrun-ning-Marine, and Tropical Disturbance. Canadian High and Modified High weather are the domi-nant weather patterns at Boston, Massachusetts, while Tropical Disturbance, Gulf of Maine Return, and New England High weather types are the least frequent. Properties of the weather types were determined at 07:00 h Local Standard Time (LST) each day in Boston. The coldest and driest weather type is the Canadian High, while the hottest, most humid weather is generated by Frontal Atlantic Return. The synoptic weather classification system, applied to airborne fine particle mass concentra-tions with an aerodynamic diameter ≤2.5 μm (PM2.5), showed significant differences in concentra-tions between weather types: transport from the north and northwest had low PM2.5, while transport from the south and southwest had high PM2.5 concentrations. This climate classification system also has potential applications ranging from studies of insect migration to analyses of climate change.
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