Value implications of emerging market multinationals' cross-border expansion patterns : an analysis of M&As, JVs and SAs

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Southern New Hampshire University
The objective of this study is to examine the value implications of cross-border expansion patterns of Emerging Market Multinationals (EMMs) and to observe market reaction to these patterns. It primarily focuses on mergers and acquisition (M&A), joint venture (JV) strategic alliance (SA) and announcements that took place during the period of 1991-2003. EMMs considered in this study are listed in UNCTAD's world investment report (2002), as the top 50 non-financial Transnational Corporations (TNCs) from developing economies and the largest 25 non-financial TNCs based in Central and Eastern Europe. This study employs event study and examines a total of 982 international expansion activities entailing 436 (M&As), 387 (JVs) and 159 (SAs) performed by 66 EMMs. The results indicate that market reaction to M&As is generally negative. Hence, EMMs that expand through M&As create little or no value. Similar results are evident for the JVs. SAs seem to generate more positive abnormal returns, but not statistically significant. While Asian and Latin American EMMs' expansions create value for shareholders, Eastern European EMMs' expansions are value destructive. A negative association between size of the acquisition and abnormal returns is illustrated suggesting value destructive impact of larger acquisitions. Acquisitions of SOEs are also value destructive. International experience and familiarity with the target market proved to be insignificant. Good governance is positively associated with cumulative abnormal returns. Diversified EMMs' cross-border acquisitions tend to create value for shareholders; however, hi-tech EMMs' cross-border acquisitions are value destructive. Some target country characteristics have a significant impact on acquiring firms' value creation. While more developed institutional infrastructure and overall level of economic development have positive impact on abnormal returns, geographic and cultural proximity proved to be insignificant. Cross-sectional and logistic regression analyses also support these results. Yet, the impact of all three expansion patterns on the performance of EMMs is positive. The improvement in performance is evident in all three years after the announcement. The performance in the third year surpasses the first two years. It is also indicative from the result that as EMM performance improves with time, multinationality measure decreases - stating a negative relationship between performance and multinationality. (Author abstract)