Browsing Psychology Faculty Papers by Issue Date
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ItemWhy misinformation is more likely to be recognised over time : a source monitoring account(Memory, 2002) Frost, Peter; Ingraham, Melissa; Wilson, BethAlthough memory for actual events tends to be forgotten over time, memory for misinformation tends to be retrieved at a stable rate over long delays or at a rate greater than that found immediately after encoding. To examine whether source monitoring errors contribute to this phenomenon, two experiments investigated subjects’ memory for the source of misinformation at different retention intervals. Subjects viewed a slide presentation, read a narrative containing misinformation, and, either 10 minutes or 1 week later, completed a recognition test about details seen in the slides and about the source of these details. After the longer retention interval in both experiments, participants were more likely to agree that they had seen misleading information and were also more likely to incorrectly associate the misinformation with the slide event. Theoretical implications of these findings are considered. ItemIncreasing false recognition rates with confirmatory feedback : a phenomenological analysis(The American Journal of Psychology, 2003) Frost, Peter; Lacroix, Donna; Sanborn, NicoleDuring a simulated witness interrogation, participants were encouraged to confabulate an account consistent with false information concerning a videotaped event. The interviewer verbally affirmed some false responses. Previous research has shown that, a week later, participants often recognize confabulated events that were affirmed by the experimenter as being from the video. What is unclear is whether confirmatory feedback encouraged a change in the mental representation of the confabulated events to fit the original event or confirmation might have merely encouraged a change in beliefs about the event. To further understand the mechanisms that underlie the confirmatory feedback effect, participants were asked to judge the phenomenological experience associated with false recognition. ItemHidden dangers within our schools : what are these safety problems and how can we fix them?(Pi Lambda Theta, Inc., 2004) Gunzelmann, Betsy A. ItemToxic testing : it’s time to reflect upon our current testing practices(Pi Lambda Theta, Inc., 2005) Gunzelmann, Betsy A. ItemPersonality characteristics associated with susceptibility to false memories(The American Journal of Psychology, 2006) Frost, Peter; Sparrow, Sarah; Barry, JenniferThis study examined whether certain personality characteristics are associated with susceptibility to false memories. Participants first answered questions from the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator in order to measure various personality characteristics. They then watched a video excerpt, the simulated eyewitness event. They were next encouraged to lie about the videotaped event during an interview. A week later, some participants recognized confabulated events as being from the video. Two personality characteristics in particular—the introversion-extroversion and thinking—feeling dimensions—were associated with susceptibility to false memories. ItemThe new gender gap : social, psychological, neuro-biological, and educational perspectives(Pi Lambda Theta, Inc., 2006) Gunzelmann, Betsy A.; Connell, Diane ItemHidden assumptions, attitudes, and procedures in failing schools(Pi Lambda Theta, Inc., 2008) Gunzelmann, Betsy A. ItemApplication of the Implicit Association Test (IAT) to a study of deception(Southern New Hampshire University, 2008-10) Frost, Peter; Adie, Michael; Culver, Kristin; Denomme, Roland; Rivardand, Stacy; Sibley, AngelaDuring an Implicit Association Test, participants associated deceptive and truthful details—which they provided previously in an eyewitness interview—with positive or negative attributes. Participants were faster associating deceptive details with negative attributes than positive attributes. Our results suggest participants harbored a negative, implicit attitude towards deceptive details. ItemNew possibilities for a new era : research-based education for equality and excellence(Pi Lambda Theta, Inc., 2009) Gunzelmann, Betsy A. ItemFalse memory-prone personality : a study on the big five personality traits associated with susceptibility to false memory(Southern New Hampshire University, 2009-10) Frost, Peter; Adie, Michael; Denomme, RolandParticipants answered questions from the NEO Personality Inventory in order to measure various personality domains and facets. Once the test was completed, participants watched an excerpt from a movie—the simulated eyewitness event. Participants then answered a recall test, with some of the questions requiring a confabulated response about the events that occurred in the movie. A week later, participants answered a yes/no recognition test about the movie. Participants were warned about the misinformation elicited in the first test and asked to answer questions based on their memory of the movie. Particular personality traits were reliably linked with false-event recognition. ItemApplication of the Implicit Association Test to a study on deception(University of Illinois Press, 2010) Frost, Peter; Adie, Michael; Denomme, Roland; Lahaie, Annabel; Sibley, Angela; Smith, EmilyThree experiments were conducted to find out whether the standard Implicit Association Test (IAT) could be used to distinguish truthful and deceitful witnesses. We anticipated that IAT effects would be greater after lying. Participants were asked to answer questions with incorrect answers (i.e., the lie condition) or correct answers (i.e., the truthful condition). A third group of participants were not interviewed (a control group). Participants then took the IAT, in which they were asked to associate correct and incorrect answers with positive or negative attributes. Results demonstrate that standard IAT effects are greater after lying than after truth telling, but only when attribute labels were clearly and explicitly linked to positive and negative affect. Theoretical implications are considered.